|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The objective of the present study was to characterize the innate immune responses induced by in vitro stimulation of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) using gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to examine the mRNA expression of a panel of 22 cytokines, chemokines, β-defensins and components of the Toll-Like Receptor signaling pathway. Stimulation of bMEC with LPS for 24 h elicited a marked increase in mRNA expression for IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, CXCL6 and β-defensin while members of the Toll-Like Receptor pathway, although present, were largely unaffected. Surprisingly, stimulation of these cells with LTA for 24 h did not significantly alter the expression of these genes. A time course of the expression of IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, CXCL6 and β-defensin was subsequently performed. The mRNA levels of all genes increased rapidly after stimulation for 2–4 h with both LPS and LTA but only the former treatment resulted in sustained responses. In contrast, the increased gene expression for LTA stimulated cells returned to resting levels after 8–16 h with the exception of β-defensin, which remained up-regulated. The limited and unsustained cytokine response to LTA may explain why mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria has greater potential for chronic intra-mammary infection than gram-negative infection. It was concluded that bovine mammary epithelial cells have a strong but differential capacity to mount innate immune responses to bacterial cell wall components.