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With a short lifespan and containing only few ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum structures, neutrophils are thought to have a limited capacity for protein synthesis. We here show that peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are able react to stimulants with differential production of two interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) isoforms, secreted IL-1ra (sIL-1ra) and the 16 kDa intracellular form of IL-1ra (icIL-1ra3), as well as IL-8. Neutrophils of a high purity and with a low degree of preactivation upregulate mRNA and de novo synthesize protein of both IL-1ra variants and IL-8 in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and lipopolysaccharide. The cytokines are differentially regulated and distributed in two intracellular compartments. In comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), PMN produce distinctly more sIL-1ra but significantly less IL-8. This may indicate an anti-inflammatory role, enabling PMN to antagonize proinflammatory signals. It is therefore possible that PMN play an important role in immune regulation by counteracting a dysregulation of the inflammatory process.