TLR2 sensing ofF. nucleatumandS. sanguinisdistinctly triggered gingival innate response

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Gingival tissue faces constant exposure to micro-organisms. It functions as part of the host response, an anti-microbial barrier that recognizes and discriminates between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of cell wall extracts from different periodontal bacteria, commensals Streptococcus sanguinis and Fusobacterium nucleatum and the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, on the innate immune response of gingival keratinocytes and the role of TLR2 in regulating this. We assayed mRNA levels to determine the expression of human β-defensins (hβD2, hβD3), interleukin-1α, -1β, 6 and 8 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. F. nucleatum extracts induced β-defensin and inflammatory marker mRNA expression at higher levels than P. gingivalis. Extracts from the Gram-positive commensal S. sanguinis did not upregulate the host response. TLR2 extinction inhibited the upregulation of β-defensin and cytokine transcripts by F. nucleatum extracts but, in contrast, led to a weak induction of hβD3 after challenge with S. sanguinis extracts. Although F. nucleatum strongly induces innate immune and inflammatory mediators, S. sanguinis limits their expression through TLR2. Together, our data demonstrate that gingival keratinocytes recognize and discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative commensal extracts, in part through TLR2, to activate different signaling pathways of the innate immune host response.

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