Epigenetic modifications of histone play important roles for regulation of cell activity, such as cell division, cell death, and cell differentiation. A SET domain consisting of about 130 amino acids has lysine methyltransferase activity in the presence of the cosubstrate S-adenosyl-methionine. More than 60 SET domain-containing proteins have been predicted in various organisms. One of them, the SMYD family genes which contain a SET domain and a zinc-finger MYND domain are reported to regulate cell cycle and muscle formation. Here we examined the expression and function of smyd1 and 2 in Xenopus. smyd1 and 2 were expressed in various muscle tissues. While smyd1 expression was observed mainly in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, smyd2 expression was done abundantly in skeletal muscle and face region. Moreover, by loss-of-function experiments using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, it was suggested that smyd1 and 2 related to muscle cells differentiation.