ON A CONNECTION OF NUMBER THEORY WITH GRAPH THEORY


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Abstract

We assign to each positive integer n a digraph whose set of vertices is H = {0, 1, …, n − 1} and for which there is a directed edge from aH to bH if a2b (mod n). We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of isolated fixed points. We also examine when the digraph is semiregular. Moreover, we present simple conditions for the number of components and length of cycles. Two new necessary and sufficient conditions for the compositeness of Fermat numbers are also introduced.

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