Nuclear responses for double-beta decays by hadron, photon, and neutrino probes and MOON experiment*)

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Neutrino-less double-beta decays (0νββ) with the mass sensitivities of the solar and atmospheric ν masses are of great interest for studying the Majorana nature of neutrinos and the absolute mass spectrum as suggested by recent ν oscillation experiments. Here nuclear responses (nuclear matrix elements) for 0νββ are crucial. They are well studied experimentally by using charge-exchange, photo-nuclear and neutrino reactions. MOON(Mo Observatory Of Neutrinos) is a high sensitivity 0νββ experiment with the mass sensitivity of an order of 30 meV. Experimental studies of the nuclear responses and the present status of MOON are briefly discussed.

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