Screening for Depressive Symptoms: Validation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a Multiethnic Group of Patients With Diabetes in Singapore

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



We determined the reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) against the DSM-IV–based diagnostic inventory, Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), in a multiethnic sample of adult subjects with diabetes attending a diabetes center in Singapore.


A total of 522 subjects (74.7% Chinese, 11.1% Malay, and 14.2% Indian) completed culturally adapted versions of the CES-D; 291 subjects were administered the SCAN inventory.


The CES-D (cutoff score 16) showed high negative predictive values of more than 90% in all three ethnic groups. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and depression (SCAN) was significantly different between the Chinese and Indian subjects (CES-D 27.4 vs. 43.2%, P = 0.006); (SCAN 15.0 vs. 31.1%, P = 0.01).


The CES-D proved to be a reliable instrument for identifying patients with depressive symptoms in the multiethnic setting of this study.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles