Role of Adiponectin in Matching of Fetal and Placental Weight in Mothers With Type 1 Diabetes

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the association of fetal hormones with placental growth and fetal weight–to–placental weight ratio index (FPI) in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We conducted a prospective study using umbilical venous blood samples taken at birth from 122 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (OT1D) and 46 control subjects.

RESULTS

Placental weight (P = 0.009) and gestation-adjusted birth weight (P < 0.001) were increased in OT1D, but FPI was unaltered (P = 0.33). Placental weight correlated with birth weight (P < 0.001) and cord leptin (P < 0.001) in control subjects and OT1D, with further relationships with cord insulin, IGF-1, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and triceps and subscapular thickness in OT1D. FPI was associated with adiponectin in both groups, even after adjustment for confounders.

CONCLUSIONS

Placental and fetal growth show a parallel increase in mothers with type 1 diabetes. The possible role of adiponectin in matching of fetal and placental growth merits further study.

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