Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of 467 Patients With a Clinically Recognized Eating Disorder Identified Among 52,215 Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Multicenter German/Austrian Study

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare clinical characteristics and outcome of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) between patients with and without a clinically recognized eating disorder (ED).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

A total of 52,215 T1DM patients aged 8 to <30 years from the prospective diabetes data acquisition system DPV were analyzed. A total of 467 patients had an additional diagnosis of ED according to DSM-IV criteria (anorexia nervosa [AN], n = 141 [female: 94.3%]; bulimia nervosa [BN], n = 62 [90.3%]; and EDs not otherwise specified, including binge-eating disorder [EDNOS], n = 264 [74.2%]). Groups were compared using multivariable regression. Cox proportional hazard ratios were calculated for the association between ED and retinopathy.

RESULTS

After adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, patients with ED revealed higher HbA1c (no ED vs. AN, BN, or EDNOS, respectively: 8.29 ± 0.01% [67.1 ± 0.1 mmol/mol] vs. 8.61 ± 0.15% [70.6 ± 1.6 mmol/mol], 9.11 ± 0.23% [76.1 ± 2.5 mmol/mol], or 9.00 ± 0.11% [74.9 ± 1.2 mmol/mol]) and a higher rate of pathological insulin injection sites (48.4 vs. 64.3, 64.1, or 62.1%). Furthermore, ketoacidosis (5.7 ± 0.1 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, 18.0 ± 4.1, or 12.9 ± 1.6 events per 100 person-years) and hospitalization (54.9 ± 0.3 vs. 89.3 ± 6.0, 132.0 ± 12.7, or 91.0 ± 4.4 per 100 person-years) were more common, and duration of hospital stay was longer (4.81 ± 0.01 vs. 11.31 ± 0.21, 18.05 ± 0.48, or 8.44 ± 0.13 days per year). All P values were <0.05. Patients with BN and EDNOS had a 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.3–4.8) and a 1.4-fold (0.8–2.3) higher risk for retinopathy, whereas AN patients had no increased risk (0.9 [95% CI 0.4–2.3]).

CONCLUSIONS

Diabetes health care professionals should be aware of comorbid EDs in pediatric/young-adult T1DM patients. An ED diagnosis is associated with worse metabolic control and higher rates of diabetes complications.

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