Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection can result in permanent neurological problems and is a potentially preventable cause of sensorineural hearing loss in the UK. There is an urgency to diagnose and assess cCMV as antiviral treatment and has only been shown to be effective if started in the first 4 weeks of life. A recent randomised controlled trial of 6 months of treatment using oral valganciclovir has shown modest benefit in preventing hearing deterioration and in improving some neurodevelopmental outcomes. Parents and clinicians need to make a timely and informed choice regarding antiviral treatment and ensure that relevant non-pharmaceutical interventions are considered. This paper brings together the current evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of cCMV, consensus from two paediatric infectious diseases centres and outlines research priorities.