Binasal prongs are the most commonly used interface for the delivery of nasal positive airway pressure (CPAP) to preterm infants. However, they are associated with pressure-related nasal injury, which causes pain and discomfort. Nasal injury may necessitate a change in interface and occasionally damage is severe enough to require surgical repair. We aim to determine the incidence and risk factors for nasal injury in preterm infants, and to provide clinicians with strategies to effectively prevent and treat it.Design
We conducted a systematic search of databases including MEDLINE (PubMed including the Cochrane Library), EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus. Included studies enrolled human preterm infants and were published prior to 20 February 2017.Results
Forty-five studies were identified, including 14 ra ndomised controlled trials, 10 observational studies, two cohort studies, eight case reports and 11 reviews. The incidence of nasal injury in preterm infants ranged from 20–100%. Infants born <30 weeks’ gestation are at highest risk. Strategies shown to reduce nasal injury included: nasal barrier dressings (2 studies, n=244, risk ratio (RD) −0.12, 95%, CI − 0.20 to −0.04), nasal high flow therapy as an alternative to binasal prong CPAP (7 studies, n=1570, risk difference (RD) −0.14, 95% CI −0.17 to −0.10), and nasal masks rather than binasal prongs (5 studies, n=544, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.00).Conclusions and relevance
Nasal injury is common in preterm infants born <30 weeks’ gestational age receiving CPAP via binasal prongs. Larger randomised trials are required to fully evaluate strategies to reduce nasal injury.