This study was designed to determine whether high-resolution anoscopy and targeted surgical destruction of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions is effective in controlling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions while preserving normal tissues.Methods:
Retrospective review of 246 patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions treated with high-resolution anoscopy-targeted surgical destruction from 1996 to 2006, with at least one follow-up at a minimum two months with physical examination, high-resolution anoscopy, cytology, and biopsy when indicated.Results:
Lesions were extensive in 197 patients (81 percent); 207 (84 percent) were men, and 194 (79 percent) were immunocompromised (HIV or other). Persistent disease occurred in 46 patients (18.7 percent), requiring planned staged therapy; 10 required surgery. Recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions occurred in 114 patients (57 percent) at an average 19 (range, 3-92) months; 26 of these required surgery. All other patients were retreated in-office with high-resolution anoscopy-directed therapies. Complications were seen in nine patients (4 percent). Despite treatment, three patients progressed to invasive cancer (1.2 percent). At their last visit, 192 patients (78 percent) had no evidence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.Conclusions:
High-resolution anoscopy-targeted destruction combined with office-based surveillance and therapy is effective in controlling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and is superior to reports of expectant management or traditional mapping procedures.