Early Postoperative Decrease of Serum Albumin Predicts Surgical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A simple and accurate predictor of postoperative complications is needed for early and safe discharge after surgery. A decrease in serum albumin is commonly observed early after surgery, even in patients with normal preoperative levels. However, whether it predicts patient postoperative outcome is unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the reduction in serum albumin within 2 postoperative days compared with the preoperative level could serve as an independent predictor of postoperative complications after colorectal surgery.

DESIGN:

This was a retrospective study from a single institution.

SETTINGS:

The study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital.

PATIENTS:

A total of 626 patients undergoing major colorectal surgery between December 2012 and January 2016 were eligible for this study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for postoperative complications and to identify the factors associated with Δalbumin. Receiver operating characteristic curves were developed to examine the cutoff value of the change in albumin in predicting postoperative complications.

RESULTS:

Among all of the patients, the median Δalbumin after surgery was 15%. ΔAlbumin was an independent risk factor for overall complications (p < 0.01). The cutoff value was 15%, and an increased area under the curve compared with C-reactive protein occurred on postoperative day 3 or 4. Patients with a Δalbumin ≥15% experienced more postoperative major complications, a higher comprehensive complication index, a longer postoperative stay, and increased surgical site infections (p < 0.05) than those <15%. ΔAlbumin correlated with sex, type of surgery, stoma creation, C-reactive protein on postoperative day 3 or 4, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Postoperative C-reactive protein remained independently associated with Δalbumin (p < 0.01).

LIMITATIONS:

The study was limited by its retrospective nature.

CONCLUSIONS:

A cutoff value of a 15% reduction in serum albumin within 2 postoperative days could help to identify patients with a high probability of postoperative complications and permit safe and early discharge after colorectal surgery.

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