Condyloma Acuminatum, Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Anal Cancer in the Setting of HIV: Do We Really Understand the Risk?

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BACKGROUND:The gold standard for surveillance of patients with anal lesions is unclear.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to stratify patients for risk of progression of disease and to determine appropriate intervals for surveillance of patients with anal disease.DESIGN:This was a retrospective chart review for patients treated for anal lesions between 2007 and 2014. Only patients with ≥1 year of follow-up from index evaluation, pathology, documented physical examination, and anoscopy findings were included for analysis.SETTINGS:The study was conducted at an urban university hospital.PATIENTS:HIV-positive patients with anal lesions treated with excision and fulguration were included.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Recurrence of anal lesions, progression of disease, and progression to cancer were measured.RESULTS:Ninety-one patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41.6 years, and mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range, 11.0–106.0 mo). On initial pathology, 8 patients (8.8%) had a diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum without dysplasia, 20 patients (22%) had anal intraepithelial neoplasia I, 32 (35.2%) had anal intraepithelial neoplasia II, and 31 (34.1%) had anal intraepithelial neoplasia III. Sixty-nine patients (75.8%) had repeat procedures. Seven (87.5%) of 8 patients with condyloma and 6 (30%) of 20 patients with anal intraepithelial neoplasia I progressed to high-grade lesions. Five (15.6%) of 32 patients progressed from anal intraepithelial neoplasia II to III, and 2 patients with anal intraepithelial neoplasia III (6.5%) developed squamous cell carcinoma (2.3% for the entire cohort).LIMITATIONS:This was a single institution study. High-resolution anoscopy was not used.CONCLUSIONS:All of the HIV-positive patients with condyloma or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, regardless of the presence of dysplasia, should be surveyed at equivalent 3-month time intervals, because their risk of progression of disease is high. Video Abstract at

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