Outcome After Redo Surgery for Complicated Colorectal and Coloanal Anastomosis: A Systematic Review

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BACKGROUND:When a colorectal or coloanal anastomosis fails because of persistent leakage or stenosis, or the anastomosis has to be resected for recurrent cancer, constructing a new anastomosis might be an option in selected patients. This is a rare and complex type of redo surgery.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review was to evaluate the current literature on redo anastomosis for complicated colorectal or coloanal anastomosis.DATA SOURCES:A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the PROSPERO register, clinicaltrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform database was performed.STUDY SELECTION:Two reviewers independently screened the available literature. All studies reporting on redo surgery and aiming at reconstruction of a prior low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis for any indication were included.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcome was successful restoration of continuity. Secondary outcomes were postoperative morbidity, pelvic sepsis, incontinence, and mortality.RESULTS:Nine studies were included, comprising 291 patients, of whom 76% had index surgery for colorectal cancer. Pooled proportions showed an overall success rate of 79% (95% CI, 69–86), with a pooled incidence of major postoperative morbidity of 16% (95% CI, 10–24). The pooled pelvic sepsis rate was 16% (95% CI, 9–27), and the pooled surgical reintervention and readmission rates were 11% (95% CI, 8–17) and 7% (95% CI, 3–15). Five studies reported on incontinence, with a pooled proportion of 17% (95% CI, 10–26).LIMITATIONS:The limitations of this review are the lack of randomized controlled trials and high-quality studies, and the small sample sizes and heterogeneous patient populations in the included studies.CONCLUSIONS:Redo surgery is a valuable treatment option for the complicated colorectal or coloanal anastomosis with 79% successful restoration of bowel continuity in the published literature from experienced tertiary centers.

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