Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosal surface was investigated in patients with hamartomatous fundic polyps or hyperplastic polyps and in patients without endoscopic evidence of disease (healthy subjects). Presence of H. pylori infection was determined by culture, histologic examination, and the endoscopic phenol red test. Adherence of H. pylori was evaluated with scanning electron microscopic examination of antral biopsy specimens. Both prevalence of H. pylori infection (P < 0.001) and H. pylori adherence (P < 0.05) were less in patients with hamartomatous fundic polyps than in healthy subjects and patients with hyperplastic polyps. However, the percentages of plasma cells in gastric mucosa that contained IgA and of gastric epithelial cells that expressed Lewis b did not differ significantly among the three groups. These findings suggest that defense mechanisms against the attachment of H. pylori other than IgA or Lewis b antigen are present in patients with hamartomarous fundic polyps.