Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may be one of the enterogastrone hormones of the ileal brake mechanism. We therefore studied its effects on gastric lipase secretion in healthy volunteers and vagotomized patients during infusion of pentagastrin. The intestinal incretin hormone GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1, 7-36 amide) was investigated because of its inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion and motility. GLP-1 infused intravenously in amounts corresponding to the postprandial release significantly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric lipase secretion and lipolytic activity. The inhibitory effect of GLP-1 persisted in vagotomized patients, suggesting that fundic chief cells, from which gastric lipase is released, or neighboring inhibitory cells could be equipped with GLP-1 receptors. Vagotomized patients had significantly higher plasma concentrations of gastrin and secretin. No significant changes of gastrin, secretin, and CCK secretion were seen during GLP-1 infusion in the vagotomized patients, whereas secretin decreased significantly in the healthy volunteers. GLP-1 seems to be a naturally occurring inhibitor of gastric lipase secretion acting via a nonvagal mechanism. Our results indicate that gastric lipase secretion is subject to hormonal stimulatory as well as inhibitory mechanisms.