Theobjective of this study was to investigate the effects of types of dialysis treatments on hepatitis C virus infection and the epidemiologic properties of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at three Baskent University hospitals, in Ankara, Adana, and Izmir, Turkey, in 655, 326, and 118 patients with end-stage renal disease, respectively. One hundred thirty patients with HCV viremia among 271 patients with end-stage renal disease seropositive for HCV were included in this cross-sectional study. HCV RNA-positive patients were classified according to the renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), and viral load, transaminase levels, and distribution of genotypes were compared between these subgroups. In the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis group, 26 of 165 patients (16%) were serum anti-HCV positive, and 11 of 26 patients (42%) were serum HCV RNA positive. Twenty-six percent of the patients undergoing hemodialysis were anti-HCV positive, and 49% were HCV RNA positive. The prevalence of genotype 1b was 68% and 73% for patients in the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the genotype 1b and the non-1b groups or between different dialysis types with regard to age and sex and serum aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and HCV RNA levels. We conclude that HCV seropositivity may differ between different types of dialysis treatments, although viral load and genotypes may be similar in persons with end-stage renal disease and those without.