Evidence suggests a trend for a higher fecal carriage rate of Streptococcus bovis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study defines the fecal carriage rate of S. bovis among children with IBD compared to controls. Subjects with IBD were prospectively enrolled from the patient population of a pediatric gastroenterology practice. Stool samples from IBD patients as well as controls were analyzed within 24 hr for the presence of S. bovis. The study enrolled 47 patients with IBD and 34 controls. Among the 47 IBD patients, 3 had a positive stool culture for S. bovis (6%) and 1 had an equivocal result between S. bovis and S. salivarius. Including this equivocal result, 8.5% of IBD patients were S. bovis carriers. Among the 34 controls, 3 (9%) were found to be fecal carriers of S. bovis. Assuming that the equivocal stool was indeed S. bovis, these groups are not statistically different as determined by Fisher's exact test (P = 0.6). We conclude that the fecal carriage rate of S. bovis is not increased among pediatric patients with IBD compared with controls.