Cholecystectomy has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, yet little attention has been given to the relationship between cholecystectomy and colorectal adenomas. Utilizing data collected in two large cross-sectional studies of colorectal adenoma risk factors, we examined the association between cholecystectomy and colorectal adenomas. In the adjusted logistic regression model, both men and women showed no effect of cholecystectomy on risk of colorectal adenomas (men: OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.30–1.47]; women: OR 1.46 [95% CI 0.92–2.29]). No effect was seen when examining the time since cholecystectomy for men. There was a slight association found for women who had a cholecystectomy less than 10 years prior (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.06–3.87]) but no association was seen in women with cholecystectomy at least 10 years prior (OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.62–2.09]). Thus, we conclude that, although cholecystectomy is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, cholecystectomy is not a risk factor for colorectal adenomas.