Although the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel diseases are not fully understood, colonic microbiota may affect the induction of colonic inflammation, and some probiotics and prebiotics have been reported to suppress colitis. The inhibitory effects of brown rice fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA), a fiber-rich food, on the induction of acute colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were examined. Feeding a 5% and 10% FBRA-containing diet significantly decreased the ulcer and erosion area in the rat colon stained with Alcian blue. In another experiment, 10% FBRA feeding decreased the ulcer index (percentage of the total length of ulcers in the full length of the colon) and colitis score, which were determined by macroscopic observation. It also decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the colonic mucosa. Viable cell numbers of Lactobacillus in the feces decreased after DSS administration and was reversely correlated with severity of colitis, while the cell number of Enterobacteriaceae increased after DSS treatment and was positively correlated with colitis severity. These results indicate that FBRA has a suppressive effect on the induction of colitis by DSS and suggest FBRA-mediated modification of colonic microbiota.