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This paper reviews the rationale and techniques for treatment of the non-vital immature tooth. The importance of careful case assessment and accurate pulpal diagnosis in the treatment of immature teeth with pulpal injury cannot be overemphasized. The treatment of choice for necrotic teeth is apexification, which is induction of apical closure to produce more favorable conditions for conventional root canal filling. The most commonly advocated medicament is calcium hydroxide, although recently considerable interest has been expressed in the use of mineral trioxide aggregate. Introduction of techniques for one-visit apexification provide an alternative treatment option in these cases. Success rates for calcium hydroxide apexification are high although risks such as reinfection and tooth fracture exist. Prospective clinical trials comparing this and one-visit apexification techniques are required.