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To evaluate the influence of diabetes mellitus on the tissue response to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and its ability to stimulate mineralization.Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into a non-diabetic control group and another with Alloxan-induced diabetes. Two polyethylene tubes, one kept empty as a control and the other containing Angelus MTA®, were implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of all rats for 30 days. Animals in each group received injections of calcein, alizarin, and oxytetracycline on day 7, 14, and 21, respectively. Animals were killed after 30 days; specimens were prepared by staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and von Kossa technique as well as for examination of unstained sections with polarized light and fluorescence microscopy.The inflammatory reaction to the implanted tubes was equally mild in both groups. Structures staining with von Kossa were seen in response to Angelus MTA®, as were birefringent structures visualized on polarized light analysis; these had no relation to diabetic condition (P < 0.05). Fluorescence intensity was not changed in diabetic rats either (P < 0.05).Diabetes mellitus did not influence the tissue response to Angelus MTA® or the mineralization stimulated by it.