The relationship between autonomy-connectedness, and depression and anxiety was investigated in 94 primary mental health care patients and 95 psychology students. All participants completed the Autonomy-Connectedness Scale-30 (ACS-30), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Symptom Check-list-90 (SCL-90). Results indicated that the primary mental health care group compared with the control group scored lower in Self-Awareness and Capacity for Managing New Situations, and higher in Sensitivity to Others. Women compared with men had higher levels of self-reported Sensitivity to Others. Regression analyses showed that both (low) Self-Awareness and (high) Sensitivity to Others predicted depression, as well as anxiety; also, (low) educational level had predictive value. These results indicate that low autonomy-connectedness might be a risk factor for depression and anxiety.