The Facial Adipose System: Its Role in Facial Aging and Approaches to Volume Restoration

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Volume loss in facial adipose tissue plays a critical role in the aesthetics of facial aging. Furthermore, the facial adipose system is a complex network of distinct compartments, and a detailed understanding of these compartments is essential for optimal facial volume restoration.

OBJECTIVE

To review the facial adipose system, age-related changes, and the role of volume restoration products for facial rejuvenation.

METHODS

Publications including deceased donors' dissection studies and more recent studies using computed tomography were reviewed to provide an up-to-date understanding of the facial adipose system anatomy and age-related changes. Current volume restoration treatment options including hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L-lactic acid are discussed.

RESULTS

Facial aging is associated with volume loss in superficial and deep adipose compartments, including those of the forehead, cheek, lip, chin, and jowl areas. Volume restoration products can be used to address the age-related changes of the facial adipose compartments.

CONCLUSION

Understanding the complex network of facial adipose compartments and their age-related changes allows for the optimal use of injectable volume restoration products for facial rejuvenation that can be customized to the anatomical needs of each patient.

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