Improving Sun-Protective Behaviors and Self-Skin Examinations Among African Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Few studies describing sun-protective behaviors, knowledge, and self-efficacy in African Americans exist. Although educational programs targeting Caucasians and Hispanics have been successful in increasing melanoma awareness and knowledge, no such investigation has been applied to African Americans.

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effectiveness of a brochure or video educational intervention on the sun-protective behaviors, knowledge, and self-efficacy regarding melanoma in African Americans.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A randomized controlled trial of a presurvey and postsurvey, in an academic outpatient dermatology clinic. Participants were self-identified African Americans, at least 18 years old, fluent, and literate in English. Patients randomized to the brochure-intervention group (n = 72) received a melanoma brochure from the National Cancer Institute. Patients randomized to the video-intervention group (n = 71) received the brochure and watched an online melanoma tutorial.

RESULTS

Sun-protective behaviors, knowledge, and self-efficacy regarding melanoma all improved equally from pre-to posteducation, in both the brochure- and video-intervention groups.

CONCLUSION

Melanoma educational interventions similar to those previously demonstrated to be successful in Caucasian and Hispanic populations are also effective among African Americans.

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