The complement component 7 (C7) is the central mediator of pathogenic attack at the membrane surface and its binding to the C5b-7 complex triggers cytolytic signaling. In this study, C7 of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) was identified (Rb-C7) and characterized at the genomic level. The Rb-C7 gene contains 18 exons and 17 introns and is composed of a 2490 bp complete open reading frame (ORF). The encoded polypeptide (830 amino acids) contains a number of well-conserved C7 signature domains. Important putative transcription factor binding sites, including those for NF-κB, SP-1, C/EBP, AP-1 and OCT-1, are present in the 5′-flanking region of Rb-C7. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close proximity of Rb-C7 with the orthologues in tilapia and Japanese flounder. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis confirmed constitutive Rb-C7 expression throughout all the examined tissue of healthy rock bream, with highest expression in liver. In immune challenge experiment, Rb-C7 expression was up-regulated in head kidney and liver in response to Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV). Furthermore, significant increases of both intracellular expression level and the number of Rb-C7-expressing cells were detected by in situ hybridization assay in head kidney and liver tissues upon E. tarda infection. These results suggested that Rb-C7 is lytic pathway gene in complement system and its transcriptional regulation may be an important immune response in pathogenic defense mechanism of rock bream.