Galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. In spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. In the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named AdGal1) from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. AdGal1 cDNA possesses an open reading frame of 598 bp, which encodes a putative galectin of 134 amino acids containing one carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). The constitutive expression of mRNA transcripts was detected in a wide range of tissues, with the highest expression in kidney. Immune challenges with Aeromonas hydrophila and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV), the transcript level of AdGal1 in kidney was significantly upregulated. The mature protein of AdGal1 was successfully expressed and purified in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant AdGal1 (rAdGal1) could show bind activity to different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. It could also strongly agglutinate different kinds of bacteria at different concentrations. Collectively, these data from the present study indicate that AdGal1 is a vital pattern recognition receptor to recognize different microbes in the innate immune system of Andrias davidianus.