MyD88 and IRAK4 are important components of TLR signaling pathways. However, information about MyD88 and IRAK4 is vacant in golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus), a marine teleost with great commercial value. Thus, in this study the full lengths of trMyD88 and trIRAK4 were cloned from golden pompano using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR methods. trMyD88 was 1213 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 288 amino acids (aa), consisting of a 99 aa of death domain at its N-terminal and a 137 aa of the TIR domain at its C-terminal. trIRAK4 was 1606 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 469 aa, including an N-terminal death domain and a central kinase domain, connected by a ProST domain. Other domains or aa residues needed for their functions were also identified in trMyD88 and trIRAK4. Physicochemical features and 3-D structures of trMyD88 and trIRAK4 were also analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the 2 genes were ubiquitously expressed in tissues from healthy pompano, especially highly in the spleen and head kidney, indicating their roles in the immune response. Further, trMyD88 and trIRAK4 were up-regulated at 12 h after the Vibrio alginilyticus and polyI:C challenge and continued to 48 h post challenge. Our results demonstrated that MyD88 and IRAK4 played important roles in the golden pompano innate immune system, providing the basis for further study of the signaling pathways that these 2 genes are involved in.