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A continued programme of research is essential to overcome production bottlenecks in any aquacultured fish species. Since the introduction of genetic and molecular techniques, the quality of immune research undertaken in fish has greatly improved. Thousands of species specific cytokine genes have been discovered, which can be used to conduct more sensitive studies to understand how fish physiology is affected by aquaculture environments or disease. Newly available transcriptomic technologies, make it increasingly easier to study the immunogenetics of farmed species for which little data exists. This paper reviews how the application of transcriptomic procedures such as RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) can advance fish research. As a case study, we present some preliminary findings using RNA-Seq to identify cytokine related genes in Seriola lalandi. These will allow in-depth investigations to understand the immune responses of these fish in response to environmental change or disease and help in the development of therapeutic approaches.Sequence genomes and transcriptomes has accelerated cytokine discovery within fish.RNA-Seq on selected tissues of S. lalandi identified a large number of cytokine and receptor genes.Cytokine and receptor genes discovered using transcriptomic approaches will allow the effective monitoring of fish immunity.