Baculoviruses are double-stranded circular DNA viruses that infect arthropods via the midgut. Because of their superiority as eukaryotic expression systems and their importance as biopesticides, extensive research on the functions of baculovirus genes as well as on the host response to baculovirus infection has been carried out, including transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the midgut. The morphological and cellular changes caused by baculovirus infection are also important to better understand the infection pathway. Thanks to these previous studies, we now have a clearer picture of the mechanisms of action of the virus and of host immunity. In this paper, we systematically reviewed studies on the interaction between baculoviruses and their insect hosts. By better understanding these interactions, baculoviruses can be developed for use as more efficient biopesticides to improve agricultural development in the future.