Among its other physiological roles, C-type lectins functioned as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in innate immunity received much attention. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin was identified and characterized from the invertebrate razor clam Sinonovacula constrict and designated as ScCTL. The complete cDNA sequence of ScCTL was 828 bp in length and coded a secreted polypeptide of 158 amino acids with a typical CRD domain. Multiple sequence alignments combined with phylogenetic analysis both collectively confirmed that ScCTL was a novel member belong to lectin family. Spatial expression distribution analysis revealed that ScCTL was extensively expressed in all of the examined tissues, and the highest expression was detected in the hepatopancreas. After 1 × 107 CFU/mL Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge by immersion infection, the ScCTL transcript in hepatopancreas and gill were markedly upregulated and arrived the maximum levels at 24 or 12 h after challenge, respectively. Recombinant ScCTL could agglutinate not only all tested bacteria but sheep and mouse erythrocyte in the presence of Ca2+. All of our studies suggested that ScCTL performed important roles in protecting cells from pathogenic infection in S. constrict.