The role of type I interferons (IFNs) in the regulation of chicken macrophage inflammatory response to bacterial challenge

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Mammalian type I interferons (IFNα/β) are known to modulate inflammatory processes in addition to their antiviral properties. Indeed, virus-induced type I interferons regulate the mammalian phagocyte immune response to bacteria during superinfections. However, it remains unresolved whether type I IFNs similarly impact the chicken macrophage immune response. We first evidenced that IFNα and IFNβ act differently in terms of gene expression stimulation and activation of intracellular signaling pathways in chicken macrophages. Next, we showed that priming of chicken macrophages with IFNα increased bacteria uptake, boosted bacterial-induced ROS/NO production and led to an increased transcriptional expression or production of NOS2/NO, IL1B/IL-1β and notably IFNB/IFNβ. Neutralization of IFNβ during bacterial challenge limited IFNα-induced augmentation of the pro-inflammatory response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that type I IFNs differently regulate chicken macrophage functions and drive a pro-inflammatory response to bacterial challenge. These findings shed light on the diverse functions of type I IFNs in chicken macrophages.HighlightsType I IFNs differently regulate intracellular events in chicken macrophages.IFNα priming boosts the macrophage inflammatory response to bacterial challenge.This boost in the inflammatory response is mediated by IFNβBacterial uptake is increased if chicken macrophages are primed with IFNα.

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