Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of teleost innate immune system. However, information about TLRs is absent in Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus), one of the most primitive actinopterygii species. In the present study, the full lengths of adaTLR1 and adaTLR4 were cloned from Dabry's sturgeon using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. The obtained adaTLR1 was 2957 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 767 amino acids and adaTLR4 cDNA was 2902 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 830 aa. Both adaTLR1 and adaTLR4 possessed several typical TLRs motifs, including signal peptides, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, a transmembrane domain and a TIR motifs. In addition, adaTLR4 contained three conserved boxes in its TIR motif, involving in TLRs signal transduction. A proline, important for LPS recognition of mammalian TLR4, was also found in adaTLR4. Physicochemical features of adaTLR1 and adaTRL4 were also analyzed. Quantitative realtime PCR showed that both transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all 11 normal tissues selected, but they exhibited different expression patterns, with adaTLR1 highly expression in heart and adaTLR4 highly in skin. Further, adaTLR1 and adaTLR4 were up-regulated in the primary head-kidney leucocytes following LPS and polyI:C stimulation, indicating that both genes involved in the sturgeon immune response to LPS and polyI:C. To our best knowledge, this was the first report of these genes in sturgeon and these results provided the basis for further elucidating the ligand specificity and signaling pathway of fish TLRs.