Serotonin (5-HT) is a conserved monoamine neurotransmitter that has several physiological functions both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to its well-known function in the central nervous system, 5-HT also participates in peripheral system. However, in crustaceans, the knowledge about peripheral functions of 5-HT is limited. In this study, a role of 5-HT in hematopoiesis in crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, was investigated. The presence of 5-HT in crayfish plasma and the effect of 5-HT injection on hemocyte number were examined. The effects of 5-HT on hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cell proliferation and secretion of the hematopoietic cytokine, astakine 1 (Ast 1) were determined in vitro. The results from this study suggest that 5-HT has no direct effect on HPT cell proliferation, but it participates in crayfish hematopoiesis through stimulating Ast 1 cytokine release from crayfish hemocytes, and thereby affects release of new hemocytes into the circulation.