Back to homeostasis: Negative regulation of NF-κB immune signaling in insects

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Maintenance of homeostasis requires prompt activation and down-regulation of immune signaling pathways. This review attempts to summarize our current knowledge regarding the negative regulation of two NF-κB signaling pathways in insects, Toll and IMD pathway, which are mostly essential for host defense against bacteria and fungus. Various types of negative regulators and their mechanisms are discussed here with the emphasis on the prominent roles of ubiquitination. The counterbalance between these two pathways, the crosstalk with other physiological pathways, and the difference in their repertoires of negative regulators are also discussed.

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