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This study examined the role of cranial sonography and neurological examination in the prediction of developmental progress during the first 19 months of life in extremely preterm infants. Forty-seven infants with mean birth weight 993 ± 197 g and gestational age 27.9 ± 1.9 weeks were studied. Each infant was classified as normal, suspect, or abnormal using cranial sonography and a structured neurological examination. Developmental outcome was assessed using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) at 4, 8, and 14 months and the Rockford Infant Developmental Evaluation Skills (RIDES) at 19 months. Sonographic classification was the best predictor of outcome through 14 months, F(2.72) = 12.4, p < .001. The neurological examination predicted performance only at 4 months. No infant classified as normal on both examinations was abnormal on follow-up. Infants with suspect or abnormal neurological examinations had normal outcomes if their sonographic findings were normal.