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Although there are several scales routinely used for assessment of temperament during the first year of life, none of them is well suited to the infant younger than 4 months old. The Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ) was designed to meet this need. The EITQ is a 76-item parent questionnaire for assessing the nine New York Longitudinal Study temperament characteristics in 1 - to 4-month-old infants. The majority of the items were adapted from the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire to be developmentally appropriate for the very young infant. The standardization population consisted of 404 infants from one pediatric practice. Means for the nine categories were calculated separately for infants from 1 to 2 months and 3 to 4 months old. Intermal consistency for the nine categories ranged from .42 to .76. Test-retest scores, completed between 2 to 3 weeks after the first rating, ranged from .43 to .87, with generally increasing retest levels in the older age group. None of the categories showed significant differences between male and female infants. This newly developed instrument should enhance the ability of both researchers and clinicians to assess temperament reliably and to understand better its contribution to clinical problems in the very young child.J Dev Behav Pediatr 14:230–235, 1993. Index terms:temperament, measurement of temperament, early infancy.