School Dropout and Associated Factors Among Omani Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Objective:Despite the rising incidence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a dearth of studies examining the rate of school dropout and its correlates in non-Western populations.Methods:Medical records were scrutinized to identify Omani children diagnosed with ADHD from 2006 to 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. The persistence of ADHD symptoms, school performance and dropout, as well as sociodemographic characteristics were examined.Results:Three hundred sixty-seven children fulfilled the diagnosis of ADHD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria and 16.6% of them had dropped out of school. School dropout was associated with poor school performance, comorbid conduct disorder, and parental divorce.Conclusion:This study from Oman concurs with existing literature that school dropout is common among children with ADHD. Concerted efforts are needed to mitigate this trend. Management strategies should incorporate the treatment of comorbid conduct disorder.

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