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Cognitive deficits are frequent consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) and often require intervention. We review the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive rehabilitation in a variety of treatment domains including attention, memory, unilateral neglect, speech and lan guage, executive functioning, and family involvement/education. Because there are more well-designed studies examining the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in adults with brain injury, the major findings from this body of literature are also highlighted. In addition, given that similar cog nitive and behavioral concerns are often apparent in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders, selected literature focusing on interven tions for these groups of children is included. Limitations and challenges inherent in examining cognitive interventions in children with ABI are also discussed. Overall, despite the growing body of literature examining the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in children with ABI, there continues to be a great need to develop well-designed studies to examine the effi cacy of these interventions. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2009;15:133-143.