Breakthroughs and future challenges in left–right patterning

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Abstract

How left–right (LR) asymmetry emerges during development has been a classic problem in the field of developmental biology, but it is only since the 1990s that molecular and genetic approaches have become possible. Since current progress in LR patterning has been summarized in several other reviews, I would like to briefly describe how this topic developed in the early days and what remains to be solved. In particular, two breakthroughs in the mid to late 1990s made major contributions to recent progress. Despite the rapid progress, there remain many challenging issues that need to be addressed in future.

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