Fertilization is a programmed process that has many molecules and sequential events amenable to study. The biochemistry of fertilization has identified cellular and acellular components fundamental to the interactions between sperm and egg. Recent studies highlight the molecular details of the species-specificity of fertilization that involve protein–protein and protein–carbohydrate interactions. Although the diversity of structure and mechanism may imply rapid evolution of fertilization proteins, understanding the structure–function relationships has become important. Here, we introduce the molecules controlling the sperm AR, sperm attachment to, and penetration through, the egg investments.