The IDDM5 gene, which is identified by whole-genome searches, is located on chromosome 6q25. TAB2 (MAP3K7IP2 [mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2]) is a potential candidate gene for type 1 diabetes because it is located on chromosome 6q25 and is involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB regulation. We have conducted familial association studies using 478 families and demonstrate that a type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene resides within a 212-kb region containing the TAB2 gene (Tsp = 1.0 × 10−2 to 4.0 × 10−4). No amino acid polymorphisms were detected in TAB2; however, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found within 5′ untranslated, 3′ untranslated, and intron regions were associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Two additional genes, LOC340152, a predicted gene with currently unknown function, and SMT3, which has homology to SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) were found within the 212-kb region and were associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Functional studies of the three genes will be required to determine their biological relevance to type 1 diabetes. However, both TAB2 and SUMO are involved in NF-κB activation and may thus be involved in type 1 diabetes through apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.