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Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Few studies have assessed women with type 2 diabetes to determine the frequency of PCOS in this population.To determine the prevalence of PCOS among premenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional prevalence study. We reviewed the medical records of all women seen in the Diabetes Clinic of the Medical College of Virginia Hospitals between January 1995 through February 2000. A diagnosis of PCOS was based on 1) oligomenorrhea, 2) hyperandrogenism (biochemical or clinical), and 3) exclusion of other related disorders.We reviewed the medical records of 618 women with diabetes and identified 47 women eligible for study. Of the 47 women, 30 consented to an evaluation. Of the 30 women evaluated, 8 were identified as having PCOS (6 women reported a previous PCOS diagnosis and 2 women were newly diagnosed), resulting in a prevalence of 26.7%.We concluded that PCOS occurs frequently among premenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.