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Chronic vascular inflammation may play a role in the development of macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. In this study, we examine the association of endothelial expression of two inflammatory mediators, receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), with type 2 diabetes using novel endothelial biopsy and RT-PCR techniques.Endothelial samples are obtained from the aorta of 12 patients with type 2 diabetes and 23 control subjects who underwent cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndrome or heart transplant follow-up. Endothelial cells are purified using magnetic beads with adsorbed CD146 antibody and subjected to RT-PCR analysis of RAGE and MCP-1 transcripts. The association of RAGE and MCP-1 expression with type 2 diabetes is assessed with χ2 test and confirmed with in vitro experiments on human aorta endothelial cells.RT-PCR reveals gene expression patterns in patient-derived endothelial cells. Strong associations are observed between induction of RAGE mRNA and diabetes (P < 0.01) and between induction of RAGE and MCP-1 transcripts (P < 0.05). Treatment of cultured human aortic endothelial cells with S100b induces the expression of MCP-1 and RAGE transcripts.Endothelial cells can be harvested during cardiac catheterization and can be characterized with respect to molecular phenotypes under the influence of both genetic and environmental factors. Induction of RAGE and MCP-1 transcripts in patients with diabetes supports a role of chronic vascular inflammation in macrovascular complications.