Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Youth With and Without Type 2 Diabetes: Differences and possible mechanisms

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OBJECTIVETo compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among recently diagnosed youth with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic youth and investigate whether demographic, behavioral, or metabolic factors might account for observed differences.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSData from 106 type 2 diabetic and 189 nondiabetic multiethnic youth, aged 10–22 years, were analyzed. Prevalence of CVD risk factors were age and race/ethnicity adjusted using direct standardization. Multiple linear regression models were sequentially adjusted for demographic, behavioral (dietary saturated fat intake and physical activity), and metabolic (body adiposity and glycemia) factors to explore possible mechanisms associated with differences in CVD risk factors between the case and control groups.RESULTSCompared with control subjects, youth with type 2 diabetes had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, large waist circumference, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each risk factor). Type 2 diabetic youth also had higher levels of apolipoprotein B, fibrinogen, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, and leptin; lower adiponectin levels; and denser LDL particles (P < 0.05 for each risk factor). Adjustment for BMI, waist circumference, and A1C substantially attenuated differences in the CVD risk factors between the case/control groups, except for fibrinogen and IL-6, which remained significantly higher in type 2 diabetic youth.CONCLUSIONSCompared with control youth, type 2 diabetic youth have a less favorable CVD risk factor profile. Adiposity and glycemia are important contributors to differences in CVD risk profiles among type 2 diabetic and control youth. Inflammatory and prothrombotic factors may also play an important role.

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