Improved Pregnancy Outcome in Type 1 Diabetic Women With Microalbuminuria or Diabetic Nephropathy: Effect of intensified antihypertensive therapy?

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OBJECTIVETo describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSProspective study of 117 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Antihypertensive therapy, mainly methyldopa, was given to obtain blood pressure <135/85 mmHg and urinary albumin excretion <300 mg/24 h. Blood pressure and A1C were recorded during pregnancy. The pregnancy outcome was compared with recently published studies of pregnant women with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy.RESULTSAntihypertensive therapy was given in 14 of 100 women with normoalbuminuria, 5 of 10 women with microalbuminuria, and all 7 women with diabetic nephropathy. Mean systolic blood pressure during pregnancy was 120 mmHg (range 101–147), 122 mmHg (116–135), and 135 mmHg (111–145) in women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and diabetic nephropathy, respectively (P = 0.0095). No differences in mean diastolic blood pressure or A1C were detected between the groups. No women with microalbuminuria developed preeclampsia. The frequency of preterm delivery was 20% in women with normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria in contrast to 71% in women with diabetic nephropathy (P < 0.01) where the median gestational age was 258 days (220–260). Compared with previous studies using less stringent antihypertensive therapeutic strategy and less strict metabolic control, gestational age was longer and birth weight was larger in our study.CONCLUSIONSWith intensified antihypertensive therapy and strict metabolic control, comparable pregnancy outcome was seen in type 1 diabetic women with microalbuminuria and normoalbuminuria. Although less severe than in previous studies, diabetic nephropathy was associated with more adverse pregnancy outcome.

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