Population-Based Study on the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Orthostatic Hypotension in Subjects With Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes

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OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-diabetes and orthostatic hypotension and to examine the prevalence and correlates of orthostatic hypotension in community dwellers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, and diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSAll participants were classified as having NGT (n = 1,069), pre-diabetes (n = 412), or diabetes (n = 157). Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a decline in systolic/diastolic blood pressure of ≥20/10 mmHg when an individual changed from a supine to a standing position. The cardiovagal response to standing was the ratio between the longest RR interval around beat 30 and the shortest RR interval around beat 15 after standing (30 max–to–15 min ratio).RESULTSThe prevalences of orthostatic hypotension were 13.8, 17.7, and 25.5% in subjects with NGT, pre-diabetes, and diabetes, respectively. For all subjects, age, diabetes, hypertension, and a decreased 30 max–to–15 min ratio, but not pre-diabetes, were independently associated with orthostatic hypotension. Age, hypertension, and 30 max–to–15 min ratio were the correlates of orthostatic hypotension in NGT subjects. Age and hypertension were related to orthostatic hypotension in pre-diabetic subjects. A1C and hypertension were the determinants of orthostatic hypotension in diabetic subjects. Supine blood pressure was related to orthostatic hypotension in all subjects and subgroups.CONCLUSIONSPre-diabetic subjects do not have a higher risk of orthostatic hypotension than subjects with NGT, although the risk of orthostatic hypotension is higher in diabetic subjects. Hypertension and supine blood pressure were risk factors for orthostatic hypotension in both pre-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Age and A1C were the correlates of orthostatic hypotension in pre-diabetic and diabetic subjects, respectively. The cardiovagal response to standing is an important determinant of orthostatic hypotension in subjects with NGT but not in pre-diabetic and diabetic subjects.

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