Prothrombotic State, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Prepubertal Children Born Large for Gestational Age

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OBJECTIVETo evaluate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors in prepubertal children born large for gestational age (LGA) to nondiabetic, nonobese mothers.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSAt 6–7 years of age, the comparison of various factors was made between 31 LGA and 34 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) children: fibrinogen, antithrombin III, protein C and S, fasting insulin, glucose, homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, IGF-1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, lipids, and the genetic factors V Leiden G1691A mutation, prothrombin 20210A/G polymorphism, and mutation in the enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase gene (MTHFR-C677T).RESULTSLGA children had higher levels of leptin (P < 0.01), fasting insulin (P < 0.01), and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01), but lower IGFBP-3 (P = 0.0001), fibrinogen (P = 0.0001), and lipoprotein(a) (P < 0.001) than AGA children. Significantly more LGA children were homozygous for the MTHFR-C677T mutation (P = 0.0016).CONCLUSIONSBeing born LGA to nondiabetic, nonobese mothers is associated with diverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors at prepuberty.

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