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Hypoglycemia causes recurrent morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated if exenatide twice daily (BID) was noninferior to premixed insulin aspart 70/30 BID (PIA) for glycemic control and associated with less hypoglycemia.In this open-label study, metformin-treated adults with type 2 diabetes were randomized to 26-week treatment with exenatide BID (4 weeks 5 μg, then 10 μg) or PIA.Exenatide BID (n = 181) was noninferior to PIA (n = 173) for A1C control (least squares [LS] mean change −1.0 vs. −1.14%; difference [95% CI] 0.14 [−0.003 to 0.291]) and associated with a lower risk for hypoglycemia (8.0 vs. 20.5%, P < 0.05). LS mean weight decreased by 4.1 kg and increased by 1.0 kg with PIA (P < 0.001). A total of 39.2 vs. 20.8% of patients reached the composite end point of A1C <7.0%, no weight gain, and no hypoglycemia (P < 0.001; post hoc analysis).In metformin-treated patients, exenatide BID was noninferior to PIA for glycemic control but superior for hypoglycemia and weight control.